Saulo Freitas, Sr. Scientist I

Contact Info

Phone: (301) 614-5855

Research Interests

Biomass Burning and impacts on weather, climate, and public health.
Numerical modeling and forecasting of atmospheric dynamics and composition
Classical and across scales convection parameterization
Numerical methods for integrating conservation laws


May 2016 - Present, Senior Research Scientist
USRA/GESTAR, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
May 2010 - April 2016, Senior Research Scientist
Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research
Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil
March 2003 - April 2010, Associate Research Scientist
Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research
Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil
August 2014 - July 2015, Visiting Scientist
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
Boulder, CO, USA

Postdoctoral Research Associate: 2000-2001, Earth Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.
D.Sc.: Applied Physics, 1999: University of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Thesis: Numerical Modeling of Emissions and Atmospheric Transport of Trace Gases and Aerosols from Biomass Burning over South America.
M.Sc.: Physics of the Solid State, 1991: University Federal of Pernambuco (Brazil). Thesis: Modeling the Indirect Interaction between Chemisorbed Atoms.
B.Sc.: Physics, 1988: University Federal of Goiás (Brazil)

Teaching Experience
Professor at the Meteorology and Earth System Science Graduation Programs of the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE): 2010-2016.
1. Special Topics on Environmental Modeling - graduate.
2. Basic Physics (electricity and magnetism, mechanics, thermodynamics) - undergraduate.
3. Advised eight Ph.D. dissertations and eight Master degree theses.

Professional Service
1. Head of the Division of Modeling and Development of the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies (CPTEC/INPE): 2010-2014
2. Member of the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE) of the World Climate Research Program and WMO Commission for Atmospheric Sciences: 2011-2016.
3. Member of the Working Group on Atmospheric Chemistry of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem): 2009-present
4. Associated Editor of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association: 2014-present
5. Guest Editor for the special issue “Coupled chemistry–meteorology modelling: status and relevance for numerical weather prediction, air quality and climate communities (SI of EuMetChem COST ES1004) (ACP/GMD EGU inter-journal SI)

• Year's Researcher of the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research, 2008
• Researcher of the Brazilian's Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq): Productivity Program 2006-2016.
• 2016 NOAA/OAR Outstanding Scientific Paper. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics publication “A scale and aerosol aware stochastic convective parameterization for weather and air quality modeling", 2014.

Other Professional Information
ORCID identity:
Google Scholar:

Special Experience
Development of Real-Time Operational Forecasts at the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research:
1. Integrated air quality and weather forecasts over South America. Real-time operational products available in since 2003.
2. High-resolution weather forecasts over South America on 5 km spatial resolution with the mesoscale model BRAMS. Real-time operational products available in since January of 2013.

Yu, P., K. D. Froyd, R. W. Portmann, O. B. Toon, S. R. Freitas, C. G. Bardeen, C. Brock, T. Fan, R.-S. Gao, J. M. Katich, A. Kupc, S. Liu, C. Maloney, D. M. Murphy, K. H. Rosenlof, G. Schill, J. P. Schwarz, and C. Williamson. 2019. "Efficient In-Cloud Removal of Aerosols by Deep Convection." Geophysical Research Letters [10.1029/2018gl080544]
Freitas, S. R., G. A. Grell, A. Molod, M. A. Thompson, W. M. Putman, C. M. Santos e Silva, and E. P. Souza. 2018. "Assessing the Grell-Freitas Convection Parameterization in the NASA GEOS Modeling System." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1029/2017ms001251]
Martins, V. S., E. M. Novo, A. Lyapustin, L. E. Aragão, S. R. Freitas, and C. C. Barbosa. 2018. "Seasonal and interannual assessment of cloud cover and atmospheric constituents across the Amazon (2000–2015): Insights for remote sensing and climate analysis." ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 145 (Part B): 309-327 [10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.05.013]
Ruivo, H. M., H. F. Velho, F. M. Ramos, and S. R. Freitas. 2018. "Data Mining for Flooding Episode in the States of Alagoas and Pernambuco—Brazil." American Journal of Climate Change 07 (03): 420-430 [10.4236/ajcc.2018.73025]
Santos, F., K. Longo, A. Guenther, S. Kim, D. Gu, D. Oram, G. Forster, J. Lee, J. Hopkins, J. Brito, and S. Freitas. 2018. "Biomass burning emission disturbances of isoprene oxidation in a tropical forest." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18 (17): 12715-12734 [10.5194/acp-18-12715-2018]
Freitas, S. R., J. Panetta, K. Longo De Freitas, K. M. Longo, L. F. Rodrigues, D. S. Moreira, N. E. Ros'ario, P. L. Silva Dias, M. A. Silva Dias, E. P. Souza, E. D. Freitas, M. Longo, A. Frassoni, A. L. Fazenda, C. M. Santos e Silva, C. A. Pavani, D. Eiras, D. A. França, D. Massaru, F. B. Silva, F. Cavalcante, G. Pereira, G. Camponogara, G. A. Ferrada, H. F. Campos Velho, I. Menezes, J. L. Freire, M. F. Alonso, M. S. G'acita, M. Zarzur, R. M. Fonseca, R. S. Lima, R. A. Siqueira, R. Braz, S. Tomita, V. Oliveira, and L. D. Martins. 2017. "The Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS 5.2): an integrated environmental model tuned for tropical areas." Geoscientific Model Development 2017 189-222 [10.5194/gmd-10-189-2017]
Sánchez Gácita, M., K. M. Longo, J. L. Freire, S. R. Freitas, and S. T. Martin. 2017. "Impact of mixing state and hygroscopicity on CCN activity of biomass burning aerosol in Amazonia." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17 2373-2392 [10.5194/acp-17-2373-2017]
Baklanov, A., D. Brunner, G. Carmichael, J. Flemming, S. Ribeiro De Freitas, M. Gauss, Ø. Hov, R. Mathur, K. H. Schlünzen, C. Seigneur, and B. Vogel. 2017. "Key issues for seamless integrated chemistry-meteorology modeling." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society BAMS-D-15-00166.1 [10.1175/bams-d-15-00166.1]
Lima, J. M., A. K. Guetter, S. R. Freitas, J. Panetta, and J. G. de Mattos. 2017. "A Meteorological–Statistic Model for Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting." Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems [10.1007/s40313-017-0329-8]
Moreira, D. S., K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, M. A. Yamasoe, L. M. Mercado, N. E. Rosário, E. Gloor, R. S. Viana, J. B. Miller, L. V. Gatti, K. T. Wiedemann, L. K. Domingues, and C. C. Correia. 2017. "Modelling the radiative effects of smoke aerosols on carbon fluxes inAmazon." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17 14785–14810 [10.5194/acp-17-14785-2017]
Paugam, R., M. Wooster, S. Freitas, and M. Val Martin. 2016. "A review of approaches to estimate wildfire plume injection height within large-scale atmospheric chemical transport models." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16 (2): 907-925 [10.5194/acp-16-907-2016]
Fowler, L. D., W. C. Skamarock, G. A. Grell, S. R. Freitas, and M. G. Duda. 2016. "Analyzing the Grell-Freitas convection scheme from hydrostatic to non hydrostatic scales within a global model." Monthly Weather Review MWR-D-15-0311.1 [10.1175/mwr-d-15-0311.1]
Pereira, G., R. Siqueira, N. E. Rosário, K. L. Longo, S. R. Freitas, F. S. Cardozo, J. W. Kaiser, and M. J. Wooster. 2016. "Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16 (11): 6961-6975 [10.5194/acp-16-6961-2016]
Walter, C., S. R. Freitas, C. Kottmeier, I. Kraut, D. Rieger, H. Vogel, and B. Vogel. 2016. "The Importance of Plume Rise on the Concentrations and Atmospheric Impacts of Biomass Burning Aerosol." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9201-9219 [10.5194/acp-16-9201-2016]
Pavani, C. A., S. R. Freitas, W. F. Lima, S. M. Coelho, N. M. Rosário, D. S. Moreira, and M. C. Yoshida. 2016. "Incluindo Funcionalidades no Modelo BRAMS para Simular o Transporte de Cinzas Vulcânicas: Descrição e Análise de Sensibilidade Aplicada ao Evento Eruptivo do Puyehue em 2011." Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 31 (4): 377-393 [10.1590/0102-778631231420150035]
Bela, M. M., K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, D. S. Moreira, V. Beck, S. C. Wofsy, C. Gerbig, K. Wiedemann, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo. 2015. "Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15 (2): 757-782 [10.5194/acp-15-757-2015]
Gatti, L. V., M. Gloor, J. B. Miller, C. E. Doughty, Y. Malhi, L. G. Domingues, L. S. Basso, A. Martinewski, C. S. Correia, V. F. Borges, S. Freitas, R. Braz, L. O. Anderson, H. Rocha, J. Grace, O. L. Phillips, and J. Lloyd. 2014. "Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements." Nature 506 (7486): 76-80 [10.1038/nature12957]
Grell, G. A., and S. R. Freitas. 2014. "A scale and aerosol aware stochastic convective parameterization for weather and air quality modeling." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14 (10): 5233-5250 [10.5194/acp-14-5233-2014]
França, D., K. Longo, B. Rudorff, D. Aguiar, S. Freitas, R. Stockler, and G. Pereira. 2014. "Pre-harvest sugarcane burning emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil." Atmospheric Environment 99 446-456 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.010]
Rosário, N. E., K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, M. A. Yamasoe, and R. M. Fonseca. 2013. "Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 (6): 2923-2938 [10.5194/acp-13-2923-2013]
Longo De Freitas, K., S. Ribeiro De Freitas, M. O. Andreae, R. Yokelson, and P. Artaxo. 2013. "Biomass Burning in Amazonia: Emissions, Long?Range Transport of Smoke and Its Regional and Remote Impacts." Geophysical Monograph Series []
Stuefer, M., S. R. Freitas, G. Grell, P. Webley, S. Peckham, S. A. McKeen, and S. D. Egan. 2013. "Inclusion of ash and SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions in WRF-Chem: development and some applications." Geosci. Model Dev. 6 (2): 457-468 [10.5194/gmd-6-457-2013]
Moreira, D. S., S. R. Freitas, J. P. Bonatti, L. M. Mercado, N. M. Rosário, K. M. Longo, J. B. Miller, M. Gloor, and L. V. Gatti. 2013. "Coupling between the JULES land-surface scheme and the CCATT-BRAMS atmospheric chemistry model (JULES-CCATT-BRAMS1.0): applications to numerical weather forecasting and the CO2 budget in South America." Geosci. Model Dev. 6 (4): 1243-1259 [10.5194/gmd-6-1243-2013]
Longo, K. M., S. R. Freitas, M. Pirre, V. Marécal, L. F. Rodrigues, J. Panetta, M. F. Alonso, N. E. Rosário, D. S. Moreira, M. S. Gácita, J. Arteta, R. Fonseca, R. Stockler, D. M. Katsurayama, A. Fazenda, and M. Bela. 2013. "The Chemistry CATT-BRAMS model (CCATT-BRAMS 4.5): a regional atmospheric model system for integrated air quality and weather forecasting and research." Geosci. Model Dev. 6 (5): 1389-1405 [10.5194/gmd-6-1389-2013]
Freitas, S. R., L. F. Rodrigues, K. M. Longo, and J. Panetta. 2012. "Impact of a monotonic advection scheme with low numerical diffusion on transport modeling of emissions from biomass burning." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 3 M01001 [10.1029/2011ms000084]
Andreae, M. O., P. Artaxo, V. Beck, M. Bela, S. Freitas, C. Gerbig, K. Longo, J. W. Munger, K. T. Wiedemann, and S. C. Wofsy. 2012. "Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (13): 6041-6065 [10.5194/acp-12-6041-2012]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, M. F. Alonso, M. Pirre, V. Marecal, G. Grell, R. Stockler, R. F. Mello, and M. Sánchez Gácita. 2011. "PREP-CHEM-SRC – 1.0: a preprocessor of trace gas and aerosol emission fields for regional and global atmospheric chemistry models." Geosci. Model Dev. 4 (2): 419-433 [10.5194/gmd-4-419-2011]
Grell, G., S. R. Freitas, M. Stuefer, and J. Fast. 2011. "Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: impact of wildfires on weather forecasts." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (11): 5289-5303 [10.5194/acp-11-5289-2011]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, J. Trentmann, and D. Latham. 2010. "Technical Note: Sensitivity of 1-D smoke plume rise models to the inclusion of environmental wind drag." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 (2): 585-594 [10.5194/acp-10-585-2010]
Longo, K. M., S. R. Freitas, M. O. Andreae, A. Setzer, E. Prins, and P. Artaxo. 2010. "The Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS) – Part 2: Model sensitivity to the biomass burning inventories." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 (13): 5785-5795 [10.5194/acp-10-5785-2010]
Alonso, M. F., K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, R. Mello da Fonseca, V. Marécal, M. Pirre, and L. G. Klenner. 2010. "An urban emissions inventory for South America and its application in numerical modeling of atmospheric chemical composition at local and regional scales." Atmospheric Environment 44 (39): 5072-5083 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.013]
Santos e Silva, C. M., S. Ribeiro De Freitas, R. Gielow, and S. S. de Barros. 2009. "Evaluation of high-resolution precipitation estimate over the Amazon Basin." Atmospheric Science Letters [10.1002/asl.242]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, M. A. Silva Dias, R. Chatfield, P. Silva Dias, P. Artaxo, M. O. Andreae, G. Grell, L. F. Rodrigues, A. Fazenda, and J. Panetta. 2009. "The Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS) – Part 1: Model description and evaluation." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9 (8): 2843-2861 [10.5194/acp-9-2843-2009]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, and L. F. Rodrigues. 2009. "Modelagem numérica da composição química da atmosfera e seus impactos no tempo, clima e qualidade do ar." Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 24 (2): 188-207 [10.1590/s0102-77862009000200008]
Pereira, G., S. R. Freitas, E. C. Moraes, N. J. Ferreira, Y. E. Shimabukuro, V. B. Rao, and K. M. Longo. 2009. "Estimating trace gas and aerosol emissions over South America: Relationship between fire radiative energy released and aerosol optical depth observations." Atmospheric Environment 43 (40): 6388-6397 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.09.013]
Marécal, V., G. Durry, K. Longo, S. Freitas, E. D. Rivière, and M. Pirre. 2007. "Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (5): 1471-1489 [10.5194/acp-7-1471-2007]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, R. Chatfield, D. Latham, M. A. Silva Dias, M. O. Andreae, E. Prins, J. C. Santos, R. Gielow, and J. A. Carvalho. 2007. "Including the sub-grid scale plume rise of vegetation fires in low resolution atmospheric transport models." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (13): 3385-3398 [10.5194/acp-7-3385-2007]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, and M. O. Andreae. 2006. "Impact of including the plume rise of vegetation fires in numerical simulations of associated atmospheric pollutants." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (17): L17808 [10.1029/2006gl026608]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, M. A. Dias, and P. L. Dias. 2005. "Emissões de queimadas em ecossistemas da América do Sul." Estudos Avançados 19 (53): 167-185 [10.1590/s0103-40142005000100011]
Freitas, S. R., K. M. Longo, M. A. Silva Dias, P. L. Silva Dias, R. Chatfield, E. Prins, P. Artaxo, G. A. Grell, and F. S. Recuero. 2005. "Monitoring the transport of biomass burning emissions in South America." Environ Fluid Mech 5 (1-2): 135-167 [10.1007/s10652-005-0243-7]
Andreae, M. O., P. Artaxo, H. Fischer, S. R. Freitas, J.-M. Grégoire, A. Hansel, P. Hoor, R. Kormann, R. Krejci, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, W. Lindinger, K. Longo, W. Peters, M. de Reus, B. Scheeren, M. A. Silva Dias, J. Ström, P. F. van Velthoven, and J. Williams. 2001. "Transport of biomass burning smoke to the upper troposphere by deep convection in the equatorial region." Geophysical Research Letters 28 (6): 951-954 [10.1029/2000gl012391]
Freitas, S. R., M. A. Dias, and P. L. Dias. 2000. "Modeling the Convective Transport of Trace Gases by Deep and Moist Convection." Hybrid Methods in Engineering 2 (3): 14 [10.1615/hybmetheng.v2.i3.70]
Freitas, S. R., M. A. Dias, P. L. Dias, K. M. Longo, P. Artaxo, M. O. Andreae, and H. Fischer. 2000. "A convective kinematic trajectory technique for low-resolution atmospheric models." J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D19): 24375-24386 [10.1029/2000jd900217]
Longo, K. M., A. M. Thompson, V. W. Kirchhoff, L. A. Remer, S. Ribeiro De Freitas, M. A. Dias, P. Artaxo, W. Hart, J. D. Spinhirne, and M. A. Yamasoe. 1999. "Correlation between smoke and tropospheric ozone concentration in Cuiabá during Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B)." J. Geophys. Res. 104 (D10): 12113-12129 [10.1029/1999jd900044]
Ribeiro De Freitas, S., K. Longo De Freitas, M. A. Silva Dias, and P. Artaxo. 1996. "Numerical modeling of air mass trajectories from the biomass burning áreas of the Amazon Basin." Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 68 193-206.
de Freitas, S. R., and C. P. de Melo. 1992. "Model Calculations of the Indirect Interaction Between Chemisorbed Atoms." Surface Science 217-220 [10.1007/978-3-642-76376-2_30]